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Kefir Ice Cream
Rejuvelac - A fermented beverage with many vitamins, enzymes helps rebuild digestion.
Essene Bread - A sprouted grain unleavened, bread which retains all it's natural enzymes.
Essene Crackers - A fermented flat bread with all it's enzymes intact.
Seed Cheese - A fermented high protein food made from sunflower and sesame seeds.
Almond Milk - A great drink filled with nutrition, for all ages!
Grass Juice- A nutrition packed energy filled drink to purify, energize, and oxygenate every part of you.
Guacamole - The Mexican dip that everybody loves.
MEATLOAF - 12/6/09
1.5# salmon or sardines + chicken + hamburger
qC honey kefir (1C milk)
1T Worcestershire sauce
(anchovies in brine, tamarinds in molasses, garlic in vinegar, chilies, cloves, shallots, sugar)
1hht dried sage
1ht dry mustard
1hht fresh ground pepper
2 cloves garlic, minced
1 small onion, finely chopped
hC sprouts, millet, or rice (dry bread crumbs)
hC barbecue sauce:
1C mustard, 3/4C tomato or strawberries or honey, 3/4C vinegar, 1/4C water, 2T chili powder, 2t white pepper
1t paprika, 2t ground cumin, 1t cayenne, 1t oregano, 2t garlic powder
Breakfast Sausage - Makes 5 lbs.
5# salmon or sardines + chicken + hamburger
1h white pepper
1q cayenne pepper
Combine all ingredients
Refrigerate up to a week or freeze until needed
VINEGAR - 10/14 + 9/26/08
Fill container half to 2/3 full of fruit juice. Cover tightly with a cloth and place in a dark, warm location where the temperature is relatively constant-approximately 60 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Leave the mixture for about 3 to 4 weeks, then begin sampling to test the strength. Making vinegar is not an exact science and it may take a few tries before the results are perfectly suited to your taste. When the vinegar strength and taste is to your liking, filter the liquid, then pour it in clean, sterile glass bottles with stoppers. Let it sit for about 6 months.
VINEGAR [alternative recipe]
1. Find a container with a spout & a wide mouth made of glass or stainless steel, not plastics.
2. Get a starter culture, the bacteria which make vinegar, at a home brew stores, or pick up a bottle of unpasturized, unfiltered vinegar, like Braggs. The culture keeps out the other molds and bacteria until the vinegar bacteria take control.
3. Pour about one quart of the starter and one quart of juice into the container in a warm dark place.
4. Keep checking it until it is as strong as you like, or until it seems to be losing strength.
5. Bottle it in small bottles & leave it for at least six months to make it smoother, if you like.
Also make Vinegar by fermenting fruit scraps, or maple or birch sap.
- Make it from raspberries, blueberries, blackberries [or mullberries?].
- Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, black currant, raspberry, quince, and tomato.
- Fruit wines ferment into fruit vinegars.
1. Press out juice.
2. Pour the juice into a cleaned and sterilized wooden keg from a home brewery supply store & fill to the top or it'll become vinegar.
3. Remove the bung on the top of the keg to let some wild yeast in. The fermentation starts in 1-2 days with white froth bubbling up through the bung hole.
4. Wait for for several weeks until fermentation stops and then replace the bung.
1. Make a sweet fruit juice solution that tastes pretty good.
2. Add a couple of kefir grains and let it ferment.
The beer may be first brewed with the basic ingredients (water + sugar + kefir grains). A half of lemon, ginger juice and a few dried figs may be added to the basic brew. In South African summer (20-35 degrees celcius) 24-36 hours are sufficient to do the first harvest. Once the figs and lemon have been removed, the kefir beer is strained through a plastic colander to separate from the babies. The second part of the process is adding pieces of fresh fruit, portions of fresh fruit juice, medicinal infusions, or teas and combinations of them to create your own unique flavour. This can be left to brew for another 12 hours in summer. Any undissolved particles of fruit/herbs/leaves may be filtered out.
Ginger Pickled Pears: Ingredients:
6 med Pears, peeled, thinly sliced
1/2 c Vinegar + 1/2 c Water + 1 med Lemon sliced + 1 c Banana [Sugar];
1 t Whole cloves - 2 Cinnamon sticks - 1/4 t Ginger
Healthy Raw Daikon Pickle: Ingredients:
1 med diakon cut into quarter strips* + 1/2 c red bean sprouts;
1 c apple cider vinegar + zest of 1 lemon + 4 tb sea salt;
- Method: Mix in a pickle bowl or a small bucket the, diakon, red bean sprouts, lemon zests and Himalayan pink sea salt. Cover the daikon and the rest of the ingredients with apple cider vinegar. Either use your pickle weight or something that you have in the kitchen as a weight to go over the daikon. Leave over night or for as long as you wish.
Raw Pickles: Makes one quart:
1 cucumber (about 6-8 inches in length) + 1 carrot;
3/4 c vinegar + 1 c water + 1 t sea salt - 1/4 sweet yellow onion - 2 t ground pickling spice
Directions: 1. Put vinegar, water, salt, and pickling spice into a 1 quart mason jar with lid. 2. Cut cucumber into 1/4 inch thick rounds or long segments. 3. Cut carrot diagonally into 1/4 inch thick pieces. 4. Cut off about 1/4 of an onion. Slice into 1/4 inch pieces. 5. Place all ingredients into mason jar. Tighten lid. Shake to distribute pickling spice. Let sit for at least three hours, or overnight, refrigerated.
- Pickle Relish or Salad Dressing: Directions: Loosely chop 1/2 cup pickles and put in the food processor. Pulse to pickle relish consistency. Use as a topping, or add 4 tb of oil, and 2 tb agave nectar for a sweet dressing. Pour over greens.
Herbed Raw Pickles:
3 cucumbers sliced;
2 c raw vinegar + 1 c water + 1/2 T Sea Salt;
1 T peppercorns - 4 bay leaves - 6 cloves garlic - 1 dried chili pepper, whole - 2 sprigs of fresh oregano - 1 T fresh dill seed.
- Slice the cucumbers and set aside. In a Quart sized mason jar, combine all the spices and herbs, and pack in the sliced cucumbers. Pour apple cider vinegar in the jar until 2/3 full. Fill remaining space in the jar with water. Tightly close the lid. Shake and refrigerate for 1 day to 1 week to pickle. Also try to pickled garlic, bell peppers, zucchini or pepper rings for salads.
* 12 eggs, 1/3C mayonnaise, 2t mustard, 1T onion, 1/4t tabasco, Salt, Pepper, Paprika
* 6 eggs, 1/4C mayo, 1/4C cheese, 1t mustard, 1T parsley, 1T scallions, 1/2t cilantro (opt), 1/4t salt, 1/2t paprika, 1/2t horseradish, 1/4t celery seed, jalapeno pepper, cayenne, chili powder
* 6 eggs, 3T mayonnaise, 1/4t mustard, 1-2t milk, 1/8t dill, 1/8t pepper, 1/8t paprika, 1/8t salt
* 12 eggs, 1C Mayo, 1t mustard (opt), 1/4C sweet pickle relish, 1t salt
* 6 eggs, 3 1/3T mayonnaise, 2t mustard, 1 1/3T celery, 1t oregano, 1t onion, Worcestershire sauce, salt, pepper, 6oz crab meat
* 12 eggs, 4T Mayo, 2t mustard, 2T parsley, 1 1/2t sugar, 1/2t salt, paprika
* 6 eggs, 1/4C mayonnaise, 1T mustard, 1/2t dill, 1/2t vinegar, 2T onion, cayenne
Mix mustard powder with vinegar in about a 1:1 ratio;
or mix two parts mustard powder with one part water; let stand for 10'; then add vinegar or similar liquid.
1 egg, 1 yolk, 1t mustard, 1t salt, 1.5C oil or butter, 2t vinegar or lemon j
Step1 In the blender, mix 1 egg and 1 yolk with the mustard and salt.
Step2 With the blender running, slowly add 1 1/2 c. oil in a thin, steady stream.
Step3 Add the vinegar.
Step4 Store in the coldest part of your refrigerator (the bottom and back) for up to two weeks.
KEFIR ICE CREAM 9/30/08
4/3C kefir; 1/2C banana; 3 eggs
or 2C kefir; 1C banana; 3 eggs; 1t lemon; 1/4t salt
Whisk egg whites
Blend other items
Add egg whites and whisk
Freeze 1 hour
Whisk and freeze until needed
1k 2/3, 3, 2 1/2, 1 2/3, 1 gal, 4
1b 1/2, 1/2, 1, 1/2, 2, ?
1e 4w, ---, 4y, -----, 6, ?
2v ?, ---, 1t, -----, 3t, ?
2l ---, ---, 1t, 1/4c, --, -
+k: 2/3 cup kefir [sour cream]
+b: 1/2 cup banana [sugar]
+e: 4 egg whites
+k: 3 c kefir [1 cup milk; 2 cups heavy whipping cream]
+b: 1/2 cup banana [sugar]
?x: 1 tsp peppermint extract
?x: 3/4 cup chocolate chips
+k: 2 1/2 c kefir [1 1/2 cups whole milk; 1 cup heavy cream]
+b: 1 c banana [1/4 sugar; 3/4 cup sugar]
f: 2 cups peaches
"l: 1 tsp. lemon juice
+e: 4 egg yolks
"v: 1 tsp. vanilla extract
+k: 1 2/3 cups kefir
+b: 1/3 cup plus 2 tablespoons banana [sweetener]
"l: 1/4 cup lemon juice + finely chopped lemon
+k: 1 gal kefir [2 qt kefir; 1/2 gal milk]
+b: 4 banana [2-1/2 bananas; b: 1 cup honey]
+e: 6 eggs
"v: 3 tsp. vanilla
+k: 4 cups kefir [or kefir and cream, or kefir, milk and cream]
+b: banana [maple syrup]
f: add fruit
+e: egg yolks
"s: kefir sprouted flour cookies
"x: guar gum or Xanthum gum thickener
?x: coconut, coconut milk, 1/2 cup nuts, food grade oils like peppermint
6 Eggs, separated
1 gal kefir [2 cans 5.33 oz. evaporated milk + Water for each can of milk, 14 oz Sweetened condensed milk, 13 oz Evaporated milk]
2 c banana [1 c Sugar] [1 tb Vanilla]
Beat egg yolks and sugar together.
Add kefir [milk and water]. [Add vanilla.]
Beat egg whites until fluffy and fold into milk mixture.
Freeze in gallon ice cream freezer, following manufacturers instructions.
KEFIR FUDGE - 8/30/06
3 C - Sweet
2/3 C Cocoa
1/8 t salt
1 1/2 C milk,kefir
1/4 C (1/2 stick) butter
1 t - vanilla extract
1/2 t vanilla flavour
1/4 t salt to taste
GLUTEN FREE FLOUR - 6/29/10
Mix then refrigerate until needed:
8 parts Tapioca Starch Flour
20 parts White Rice Flour
10 parts Potato Starch Flour
2 part Cornstarch
1 part Guar Gum (or Xanthan Gum)
5 parts white rice flour
5 parts tapioca flour
4 parts amaranth flour
3 parts sorghum flour
2 parts superfine brown rice flour
2 parts egg white protein powder
4 parts sorghum flour
4 parts brown rice flour (I use superfine brown rice flour)
3 parts potato starch, not potato flour
1 part white rice flour
1 part sweet rice flour
1 part tapioca flour
1 part amaranth flour
1 part quinoa flour
SPROUT RECIPES - 2-16-07
Soak a cup of grain 8-12 hours in 1 qt of pure water
After soaking, add 1/4 cup of kefir milk to the soaked grain and grind it all in a blender for 20 seconds
Then add 2 qts of pure water and blend for 5 seconds
Pour in a jar and cover with screen or cloth and let it set overnight or for 8-12 hours
Then refrigerate with a loose lid and drink 1 pint or more a day
If you don't want to drink the solids, use them in sprout bread
Rejuvelac is made from grains. There are several types of grains that can be used for making rejuvelac. The most popular grains are wheat and rye. If rejuvelac is made from wheatberries, make sure to use the soft, spring wheatberries, not the hard, winter wheatberries that are used for growing wheatgrass. Besides spring wheatberries and rye, rejuvelac can be made from millet, oats, barley or triticale. Triticale is a hybrid between wheat and rye. It is particularly high in protein.
It will take about 4 days to make a rejuvelac, starting with dry seeds. The recipe given here will make one gallon of rejuvelac. We recommend drinking one quart of rejuvelac per day, so a gallon should last for four days. Therefore, when the four-day supply is harvested, (sprouted) it is time to start the next batch.
1. Rinse, then soak in filtered water 3/4 cup of dry grains for 8-12 hours in a jar with a screen tied over the opening. During this time the grains will expand to 1 cup.
2. Drain and discard the soak water from the grains, then rinse the grains. Keep the jar upside down at a 45 degree angle to fully drain and for sprouting.
3. Sprout the grains for 24-36 hours. Rinse the grains two to three times during sprouting. This will yield enough sprouted grain to make one gallon of rejuvelac.
4. Blend the one cup of sprouted grains with two cups of purified water for about 5 seconds. Pour contents from the blender into a one gallon container and add enough water to make one gallon.
5. Place a screen on top of the one gallon container and let the rejuvelac ferment for 24 hours in a room temperature of 68-80 degrees F. Ferment longer if a stronger rejuvelac is desired.
6. Pour rejuvelac through a strainer to strain out the grains and sediment that forms on the bottom. Discard or compost the grains and sediment.
How to tell if your rejuvelac is good and what to do if it isn't. After one day or longer, of fermentation, the rejuvelac should be perfect. It should have a fermented aroma. At this point taste it. It should taste slightly sour. If it tastes too bland, you have probably not had the room warm enough or there might not have been enough sprouted grains used. If it tastes spoiled, it probably is. Rejuvelac may spoil if it is fermented too long. Do not drink watery or spoiled rejuvelac.
Slightly watery rejuvelac can be improved by increasing the room temperature, stirring the rejuvelac and leaving it for up to another 24 hours. There is no correcting spoiled rejuvelac. Water your plants with it, add it to your compost or ditch it.
Storing Rejuvelac. Rejuvelac should be consumed at room temperature. You can store it in the refrigerator for up to four days, but take it out a few hours before drinking it. NEVER COVER REJUVELAC TIGHTLY. Cover your rejuvelac loosely with a cloth or screen to keep the bugs out, but do not put a tight lid on it.
.Soak 2 cups of grain 8-12 hours in 1 qt of pure water
.Optional: After soaking add 1 or 2 cups of any chopped vegetables such as celery, parsley, bell pepper, radish, carrot, beet, Rejuvelac solids etc
.Optional: Also add 1 to 2 tablespoons of caraway, poppy, dill, or sesame seeds, dried or fresh herbs of your choice, stevia, sea salt etc
.Pour it all into a blender or food processor & grind to a thick paste .Sprinkle a pan with flax seeds, pour the paste on top and sprinkle more flax seeds on top of the paste
.Put the paste in a crock pot and set it on low for 10 hours or put it in an oven on low heat for 10 hours
.Bread is then ready to use
1 cup wheat berries * see note
3/4 cup sunflower seeds
1/4 cup sesame seeds seasonings:
2 tbl soy sauce
1/4 tsp sea salt
1/8 tsp garlic powder
1 tsp parsley flakes
1 tsp onion flakes dried
* 1) Sprout grain and seeds. Soak seeds 8 hours, drain, rinse and sprout for 2 days.
* Makes 2 cups sprouted seeds. Soak grains 12 hours, drain, rinse and sprout 2 days. Makes 3 cups sprouted grains.
* 2. Grind sprouted seeds and grains together. Use blender, food processor or food mill. Add a little water if necessary.
* 3. Add seasonings and mix thoroughly (see other suggestions under HELPFUL HINTS.)
* 4. Spread on lightly oiled foil on a baking sheet about 1/8 inch thick. Dry out in oven overnight at lowest temperature. Turn over and peel off foil to dry the other side. Break in pieces. Store in air tight container.
* HELPFUL HINTS: Other seasonings to try include: Mexican: chili powder, chopped green chillies
* Italian: basil, oregano, tomato sauce
* Sweet: raisins or other dried fruit, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, applesauce.
* Score bread with a knife before baking to have even squares for serving.
ESSENE BREAD Alternative
Ingredients: 2 Cups sprouted wheat or rye berries
Place sprouted berries in a food processor and grind to a thick paste. Remove dough from processor and shape into ball. Sprinkle a bowl generously with sesame seeds. Place the loaf into the bowl and place the bowl into an electric slow-cooking pot. (crock pot) cover and set on low for 10 hours.
Essene Bread Variations: To the Essene bread dough, add 1 or 2 cups of finely chopped vegetables such as celery, parsley, bell pepper, radish, or carrot in any combination or singly. When grinding the sprouted grain, add 1 to 2 tablespoons of caraway, poppy, dill, or sesame seeds. Dehydrated or fresh herbs of your choice can also be added.
Ingredients: 1 1/2 cups soft spring wheat berries; Purified water; 1 - 1 1/2 cups Rejuvelac
Wash and rinse wheat berries. Put grain into quart jar and more than cover with purified water. Soak for about 8 hours. Strain and rinse grain, then drain and return grain to the jar. Sprout the grain overnight. Blend the sprouted wheat berries with the Rejuvelac to form a batter. For thinner crackers, use more Rejuvelac. For thick chewy crackers, use less Rejuvelac. Pour batter onto teflex sheets on dehydrator trays and set temperature to 105 degrees. Dehydrate for 24 hours, (see equipment) Serve with guacamole.
Yield: 1 1/2 to 2 dozen crackers
A valuable food. Lightly fermented, it is full of enzymes, B vitamins, and amino acids. It is a pre-digested protein, so it is easily assimilated into the system. It contains lactic acid, which fights harmful bacteria. It is a natural acidophilus, which helps the friendly flora in the intestines. It is a versatile food. It can be eaten straight, into a seed sauce, or used in many recipes.
EQUIPMENT Two one-quart jars, a strainer, blender, stainless steel or glass bowl, a cloth or towel, a rubber band, a large serving spoon and a seed bag. If you do not have a seed bag, use a tea towel. People have been known to use nylons or panty hose in a pinch.
2/3 Cup hulled sunflower seeds
1/3 Cup unhulled sesame seeds
3 Cups rejuvelac (see rejuvelac)
Soak sunflower seeds and sesame seeds separately overnight in purified water. In the morning, rinse sunflower seeds in very warm water to remove skins. Rinse sesame seeds. Put seeds in blender. Add three cups of rejuvelac and blend for three minutes. Pour mixture into bowl. Cover the bowl with a cloth. Secure with rubber bands. Place in a warm place with good air circulation. Let stand for 6-8 hours. Remove cloth. Scrape off top, oxidized, layer and discard. Spoon middle (almost cheese) layer into a seed bag. Water plants with liquid layer. Hang the "almost cheese" in fridge overnight, with a bowl under it to catch liquid. In the morning you will have seed cheese.
SOAK SEEDS IN PURIFIED WATER- Whenever you soak seeds, do so in purified water. You may use spring or distilled water, but purified is excellent.
USE HULLED SUNFLOWER AND UNHULLED SESAME SEEDS-Hulled seeds have the shells removed. Unhulled seeds have the shells left on. when you learn to grow the sunflower greens or buckwheat lettuce, you use unhulled seeds. For seed cheese, use the hulled sunflower seeds. The reason that you use unhulled sesame seeds is that once hulled, these tiny seeds go rancid quickly.
USE VERY WARM WATER FOR RINSING THE SUNFLOWER SEEDS-Using very warm water helps loosen the skins from the sunflower seeds, making it easier to remove them.
THE OXIDIZED LAYER-When you remove the cloth after fermenting the "almost cheese, " there should be a fairly dark layer on top. This layer should be no more than a 1/16th or an 1/8th of an inch in thickness. The difference in color between the oxidized layer and that of the "almost cheese" layer should be quite distinct.
Thin the seed cheese with a little rejuvelac to the consistency you desire. Some people like a thin sauce; others prefer a thick one. Use seed sauce as a dressing for sprouts, greens and vegetables.
1 C Almonds, soaked
2 C Pure Water
Dash of Maple Syrup
Soak 1 cup almonds overnight. Remove skins. Blend on high until very smooth. Add purified water and continue blending for 3 minutes. Pour almond mixture through cheese cloth or seed bag to drain off liquid. Squeeze additional liquid until almond mixture is dry. Add just a little Maple Syrup. Use milk in favorite recipes. Save left over nut puree to add to other recipes calling for nuts and seeds.
Yield: 3 Cups
Preparation time 10 hours
WHEAT GRASS JUICE COCKTAIL
1/4 tray of wheat grass
(Red Winter wheat sprouted and grown in tray for approximately 14 days.)
Wheat Grass Juicer
Rinse wheat grass with water and drain. Feed wheat grass (cut end down) into wheat grass juicer (see juicers). The Miracle MJ 550 is what we are recommending. It works quite well for home usage. However a hand crank juicer will do the job. Make sure not to over stuff the juicer as this will tend to clog the machine. Juice 2 oz. of green juice for cocktail. Always drink the juice within 20 minutes after processing. Drink juice up to one hour before meals or wait up to two hours after meals. for example, wait 1/2 hour after a juice meal, 1 hour after a starch meal and 2 hours after a protein meal before drinking wheat grass juice, ideally.
5 Avocados, 4 Tomatoes, diced, 3Cups finely shredded Zucchini, 3 Green onions, sliced thin, 2 teaspoons Dulse and Garlic, 1/2 cup Sauerkraut
Cut the avocado lengthwise, then twist to open. Remove the pit. Score avocado meat first lengthwise, then across to form criss-cross pattern. scoop out avocado and put into a bowl. Do not mash avocado. Add remaining ingredients and mix gently. Serve with essene crackers- Great!
FERMENTS - 7-29-06
- from Wild Fermentation, by Katz
.Kefirkraut- 4 days: cabbage, 1T kefir grains, water, Optional: rad. ct. broc or caul, leg or sd.spr: mung, soy, lentl, alf, cres or Spice: jun.bri, car, dil, cel sd, gingr rt, chilis
.Chutney- 1da+: 1C soakd.shr.conut; 3T lt.fri.pe; 1 lem.j; t salt; t cum; t cor.sd; t hon; h.t fri.must.sd; 3/4C yog r kef
.Yogurt- 8hr+: boild milk [f thickr yog]; 1T startr/gal
.Yogurt Cheese- [gently] strain yogurt thru cheesecloth; add herbs
.Yogurt Sauce- 1hr+: saltwatr.soak,drain lg.grat.cu; 1T salt; 2C yog; 5 ga; [1.t dry.rstd.gr.cum; qC chop.cil] or [2T olol; 1T lem.j; whi pepr; qC chop pars or mint]; herbs; vegs
.Nuka-2da+: 2# bran o wt or rice [dry.toastd]; seawd; 3/8C salt; hC miso; 1C beer; gingrt; whol:tp,ct,rad,pe,bn,cu,veg [rplac daly or les wen sour]
.Kefir-1da+: 2/3 jar o milk; kef g [seal; shak fu x; strain ou grains]
.Sour Kefir-2da+: [l kef set fu da>sep curd & whey]
.Seed Milk-20': 1C sd r nut; 3.5C watr; t lec; [blend,strain]
.Seed Cheese-2da: 1C 8hr.soakd sd; 2T soakd flax sd; 4T cookd grain; 3T olol; t hon; 1T on..; q.t cel sd; 1/3C lem.j; 1T kef g
.Farmer Cheese-20'+: 1gal boild whol milk; [simmr,slo add] hC vin; [strain,add] 1T salt; herb,spi
.Rennet Cheese-2da+: 1gal boild whol milk r raw unhom milk; [Add] 1C yog r kef g [ht>100F 1>2hr]; [Add,brief stir] 3 to 10 drop'ren; [af h.hr slic w knif in pot@100F, strain & add] 3T salt
.Sweetato Fly-3da: t boild.pwd.mace; 2 lg grat.rinsd.sw.po; 2C sug; hC whey; 2 lem; cin; nutmg; 1 egshel; 2 egwhi; [strain af ferm]
.Capers-4da+: 1+hC smal sdpod o milkwd r nasturtium; salt; ga
.Saurkraut-1wk+: 5# cab r tp r rut r bt; 3T salt r 1C wine r 3T car,cel,dil sd r 1oz dr seawd; [+ct,on,ga,grn,cru,tp,bt,bdocrt,frt,hrb,spi]
.Shuicroot: 4" cab core in kraut >> rol krt & chs in cab lf + tthpic
.Borsch: beet soup, kefir, red kefirkraut
.Kimchi: 4T salt; 4C watr; 1# chicab r rad,hrsrad,jert,burdocrt r pinapl,plum,pear,apl,grap,nut,1 lem.j; rad,ct,on,ga,cay; 3T gingrt
.Pickles: 4# cu r sq r egpl r grn.to r pepr r bn; 6T salt; 3T dill; ga; fresh lv'grap,chry,oak,hrsrad; pepcorn
.Kishk-1wk+: hC wt r ry r bar..; 1C yog; [mix,knead daly]; h.t salt [knead & flatn/tra in sun>dry; sto in seald jar; add>soups]
.Gundru-2wk+: wiltd grn [smash>jar,close,set in sun]
Kefirkraut [See below] makes an excellent sourdough starter for baking bread and cakes [yes, sourdough starter can also be used for baking cakes]. Take 1 cup portion of kefirkraut, blend with some of its own juice, then add enough flour and water to make a smooth paste. The paste can be as thick or as thin as you like. Place in a glass jar covered with a cloth and let sit at room temp for 3 - 4 days. Each day add 1 tsp of fresh flour and stir well. That's it, you now have a good sourdough starter ... a natural leavening.
cabbage - 1T kefir grains - water
Optional ingredients: radish [Daikon]. bunch of small red round or long radish. carrot. broccoli/cauliflower. sprout legumes or seeds e.g., mung bean, soybean, lentil, alfa-alfa, cress or any combination, Spices such as juniper berries, caraway, dill and celery seeds, fresh or dry ginger root and chili peppers
Get Kefir grains from: http://Happyherbalist.com or http://www.torontoadvisors.com/Kefir/kefir-list.php.
.Sliced fresh ginger root may be cultured with kefirkraut as a means to naturally preserve the root. Peel
.Mung bean sprouts, soy sprouts and even sprouted wheat or other cereal grains
.Spent cereal sprouts may be used to prepare a sourdough starter by pounding the sprouts or blend with some water and mixing the mash with fresh flour and water
.Fresh Fruits and Herbs
Vine leaves, black current leaves, spinach, herbs such as Parsley, Greater plantain [Plantago major], Dandelion leaves and flowers, Rocket, other edible herbs. Fresh whole broad beans
.fruits & vegetables containing starch and sugars
.marinate high protein foods under a puree of papaya-kefirkraut
.High Calcium unhulled sesame seeds
.Limestone in the kraut to form Calcium lactate and Magnesium lactate
.Kefchi is a kefir-grain rendition of Kim-chi: Chinese cabbage, daikon radish, Jerusalem artichoke, green papaya, fresh green ginger root, lotus root, fresh chili, capsicum, garlic, fennel seed, caraway seed and juniper berries.
.red cabbage, fermented rice powder, oriental broccoli, radish [Daikon].
.sourdough starter-3da+. 1C kefirkraut, some kk juice, flour, water
The LIVING Kefir Network
Ingredients and Utensils
Large non-metal 2 - 4 litre [1/2 - 1 gal] container e.g., a food grade glazed terra cotta crock or ceramic crock or a glass jar [tall cylinder shape is best]
A pressing tool made from non-treated wood-doweling e.g., a cut-down wooden rolling pin or something similar, longer than the height of jar or crock [above]
Mortar and pestle or food processor [the method explained below incorporates a mortar and pestle, so substitute a food processor accordingly]
Either a round flat dish or a wooden disk which fits snug in the container [to cover the vegetables]
App. 1 kg [2 Lb] weight e.g., a large clean stone, or a large bottle or jar filled with water
One medium to large size fresh cabbage with outer dark green leaves left intact
Optional ingredients : One Japanese radish [Daikon]. Or one bunch of small red round or long radish. One medium size carrot. One medium head of broccoli/cauliflower. 1 cup of sprout legumes or seeds e.g., mung bean, soybean, lentil, alfa-alfa, cress or any combination
1 to 2 Tbs of kefir grains [use fresh excess milk-based kefir grains].
Fresh water, preferably natural spring water or fresh vegetable juice to cover the vegetables [app. 1 - 3 cups depending on quantity you're making and size of crock and method used]
Method for Preparing Kefirkraut
Preparing the Ingredients
Remove any large outer dark green leaves from the cabbage until clean light green leaves appear. Keep two of the outer dark-green leaves and wash with cold water. Cut cabbage in half and remove the hard centre core. Shred cabbage to 1/2 cm [1/4"] thick strips. Pound amounts of shredded cabbage in a mortar and pestle until well bruised, until its own juice is released when a portion is squeezed in the hand. Pound small amounts at a time, placing each pounded portion into a large bowl, until all the cabbage is well bruised. Optional veggies may be used whole, if no larger than approx. 1" [2 cm] in thickness. Cut to size if thicker e.g., cut large Daikon radish, carrots and whole beet root julienne style. Small round radishes may be included whole or cut in half. Broccoli/cauliflower heads need to be removed from the main stalk and separated into small individual heads. Small heads my be added whole or bruised by mortar and pestle. The same goes for sprouted seeds or legumes. Except for the kefir grains, mix all ingredients together in a large bowl.
Filling the Brewing Container
Place 1/2 amount of kefir grains at the bottom of the container
Begin to fill the container with ingredients. Press layers down with wooden doweling, or with a clenched fist until well compressed. Keep adding ingredients and compress until 1/2 volume of container remains incompressible, then add the remaining kefir grains
Keep adding and compressing the ingredients until 3/4 volume of container remains incompressible
Place 1 or 2 washed outer whole cabbage leaves over top layer of compressed ingredients. Try to force the edges of the leaves down the sides of the container using the handle of a spoon. This should seal the ingredients contained underneath see photo
Place a plate or wooden disk on top of the cabbage leaves, then place the weight on top of the wooden disk or plate
If the ingredients are not completely covered by juice, add enough water or fresh vegetable juice until the plate is covered by app. 1" [2 cm] of liquid. However, if the ingredients were well bruised, there should be enough juice to cover the contents once the weight is put in place in step 5 above
Place a plastic bag over the container to keep out air, dust and insects. The bag may be tied with string or secured with an elastic rubber band
Let the container sit undisturbed in a cupboard or in a cellar. At day 3, check the surface of the liquid for signs of froth or foam and remove any foam by skimming with a spoon. The kraut should be ready at day 4 to day 5.
For the tech-heads out there, readiness can be determined by testing pH using litmus paper, or a digital pH meter [obtainable from chemical suppliers]. The pH should be 4.5 to 4 [mildly acidic]. This is when the kraut is ready for ripening in the refrigerator. Experience suggests that during summer months the kraut is ready at day 4, and during winter, day 5 is usually the day.
Remove the weight and disk or plate, and then place the container of kefirkraut in the refrigerator. If the crock it too large to fit in the fridge, transfer the kefirkraut into suitable containers with good secure lids, then refrigerate. The ingredients should be covered by its own juice. If the contents are not covered, add a little fresh water or fresh vegetable juice, to just cover the ingredients [not too much juice or water Dear Liza]. The kraut should be ready for consumption after ripening in the fridge for 4-7 days. Although the kraut may be consumed from day one, ripening improves overall flavour, similar to the aging of wine.
That's it ... you've kefirkrautarized along with the members of the minority group who do... that is until the culture-art is more widely spread, on sourdough rye bread. The refrigerated kefirkraut should store well for 3 to 4 months.
If the kefirkraut is soft or mushy, fermentation was too long or the temperature was too high during fermentation. I recommend fermenting for less time rather than over fermenting. In any case, kefirkraut will keep ripening in the refrigerator, even if the kefir grains have been removed. In most cases optimal time and temperature for fermentation is 5 days at app. 22° C [70° F]. When ever a portion of kefirkraut is removed from the container for consumption, compress the contents left in the container to ensure the ingredients are submerged under liquid. This improves storage.
Kefirkraut at the Beginning of Fermentation [Day 0]
This photo demonstrates fresh ingredients on day 0 of fermentation. A glass jar filled with water makes a good weight source. Because CO2 is produced during fermentation, the overall volume of liquid will increase over time, so the brewing jar is placed in a wide shallow container to catch any spillage which may occur during fermentation. To reduce air and to prevent dust and insects from falling into the brew, the whole system may be covered with a large plastic bag.
After happily brewing away for 4-5 days at ambient temperature, the weight and wooden disk are removed, the kraut jar is sealed and then refrigerated. During cold storage the vegetables are kept submerged under juice, as the ripening process improves flavour while the kefirkraut matures for some days.
This procedure provides a wonderful crispy textured kraut, with good keeping quality.
Kefir Grains for Kefirkraut
Each new batch of kefirkraut is best cultured with fresh excess milk-based kefir grains. Excess kefir grains are a portion of grains removed from a batch of kefir grains cultured in dairy milk, when the grains have increased in milk to the point of having too many grains. Do not use all your milk kefir grains for culturing kefirkraut, for they will no longer propagate in milk after culturing kefirkraut. Although I used to suggest using kefir grains from the pervious batch of kraut to culture a new batch, I recently decided to omit this process here, in case problems arise due to lack of experience in food-fermentation. The grains may be left in the cultured-kraut at all times, consuming any grains removed with a portion of kraut. We very much enjoy eating kefir grains that are found at random with a portion of kefirkraut.
Adding Spice is Nice
Spices such as juniper berries, caraway, dill and celery seeds, fresh or dry ginger root and chili peppers may be included to enhance both flavour and fermentation. Mix any seeds or spice powders together with the vegetable ingredients prior filing the crock. As a general guide, 1/2 tablespoon of each seed spice per whole head of cabbage [app. 1kg or 2 Lb] is a reasonable measure. Spices may be ground to enhance flavour and encourage the growth of the friendly microflora. Fresh ginger root, garlic and chili pepper provides an exotic zesty flavour to kefirkraut, to produce a form of Kim-chi of Korea. I prefer pounding fresh ginger root, garlic and chili peppers together in a mortar and pestle to form a chunky paste, and then mix the paste with the pounded cabbage just prior filling the crock. I LOVE zi GARLIC and ze GINGER-CHILI kefirkraut. I generally use one crown of garlic [app. 15 cloves] with 60 gm [2 oz] of green ginger root and 5 or so fresh chili peppers to each 3 kg [6.6 Lb] of ingredients.
Culture-Preserved Fresh Ginger Root
Sliced fresh ginger root may be cultured with kefirkraut as a means to naturally preserve the root. Peel fresh ginger [green ginger is best], by running the edge of a knife to scour lengthwise across the outer skin. Cut the peeled root into about 1/2 cm [1/4"] thick slices, either lengthwise or widthwise. The slices are layered last, just before covering over the compressed ingredients with large cabbage leaf. The ginger may be left in with the kraut during cold storage, and portions are removed as needed for preparing whatever calls for fresh ginger root. This process will not add much of a ginger flavour to the kraut, if additional ginger was not included as part of the ingredients in any form or fashion. In other words, the ginger retains pretty well its full flavour. Another option is to remove the ginger root after 1 week of cold storage, place in a jar and cover with extra virgin olive oil [or any oil of preference]. Refrigerate and use as needed. To prolong storage life, the ginger root may first be partially dried for an hour before filling the jar and covering the roots with oil. Don't discard the oil after using up all the ginger! This is GINGER OIL, which can be used as salad dressing or whatever
Adding Sprouted Legumes, Seeds and Cereal Grains
Dehydrated legumes must be sprouted first. Mung bean sprouts, soy sprouts and even sprouted wheat or other cereal grains [sprouting the cereal grains for 32 to 48 hours], can produce very interesting results. Sprouted cereal grains encourage the growth of organisms responsible for fermentation. A small amount of sprouted rye, wheat or millet are best placed first, at the bottom of the crock. The spent sprouts are discarded when the crock is emptied, for most individuals may find kefirkrauted sprouted cereal grains have an unappealing flavour [bitter/sour/sweet flavour]. Spent cereal sprouts may be used to prepare a sourdough starter by pounding the sprouts or blend with some water and mixing the mash with fresh flour and water to form a thick paste. Keep in a jar covered with cloth and let sit at room temperature for about 3 or so days. It is best used when it is nice and bubbly with a clean aroma of fresh yeast.
Including Fresh Fruits and Herbs
Adding slices of apple may also be included in kefirkraut. Adding two apples to each large head of cabbage or one apple to a medium size cabbage makes a nice addition. 1/2 cm [1/4 inch] slices of apple may be placed randomly throughout the ingredients while filling the crock.
Vine leaves, black current leaves, spinach, herbs such as Parsley, Greater plantain [Plantago major], Dandelion leaves and flowers [Taraxacum
officinale], Rocket [Erucola sativa] including a variety of other edible herbs may be included. Fresh whole broad beans also make an interesting addition.
As a general thumb ruler, fruits & vegetables containing starch and sugars as part of their biological makeup, may be cultured.
Tenderising High Protein Content Foods with Papaya-Kefirkraut
Green papaya makes a nice rendition when added as part ingredient to prepare kefirkraut [papaya-kefirkraut]. Try including about 1 cup of 5mm [1/4 inch] thick long strips of green papaya to each head of cabbage, or per kilogram [2.2 pounds] of ingredients. Green papaya strips may either be added without bruising, or bruised by pounding with the cabbage. Papaya kefirkraut, can be used to tenderise high protein foods, such as tempeh, tofu, meats including fish. This is achieved by marinating the high protein food of choice, in a puree prepared by blending papaya-kefirkraut in a food processor, and then submerging the food of choice under the marinade. The ingredients can either be marinated at room temperature for 24 hours, or refrigerated for a number of days before cooking.
High Calcium Kefirkraut
Try whole unhulled sesame seeds in the mix. The seeds may be added either raw or toasted. Whole, unhulled sesame seeds are very rich in calcium, but the calcium is not biologically available. This is because the native calcium found in sesame seed husks is prevented from being utilized mostly due to oxalic acid, which is also found in the hulls of unhulled sesame seed. Fermenting unhulled sesame seeds along with the kraut breaks down the oxalic acid and also produces calcium lactate, through a chemical reaction between lactic acid and the form of calcium native to sesame seed hulls. This renders the calcium biologically-available [digestible form].
Traditional sauerkraut is occasionally fermented by using a large heavy piece of limestone as a weight source. Limestone is mostly calcium and magnesium, and these two elements react with lactic acid in the kraut to form Calcium lactate and Magnesium lactate [bio-available forms]. One may implement this method with kefirkraut, by using a clean piece of limestone as a weight source. Or, by placing a small piece of lime stone at the bottom of the crock, or with the last top layer of vegetables before covering the ingredients with the whole cabbage leaf [or clean cloth]. An alternative to limestone is oceanic coral. Small pieces of coral may be included similar to adding pieces of limestone as explained above.
Kefirkraut Cultured with the Addition of Sea Salt
Let's first consider these basic facts: Fermentation time needs to be extended when using salt to culture kefirkraut. The percentage of salt and ambient temperature during fermentation, will determine how long to culture for. Kefir grains are best added first at the bottom of the crock, then the crock is filled with the pre-salted ingredients. Another portion of kefir grains may be placed midway up the crock, or when half the ingredients have filled the crock.
Kefirkraut may be cultured with a percentage of sea salt, similar to traditional sauerkraut. Traditional Sauerkraut commonly contains between 2% to 3% salt and takes between 3 to 4 weeks to culture.
I personally prefer any salted version of kefirkraut to contain .25% to .5 % salt.
When adding 1% to 2% salt, fermentation may take between 12 to 21 days at ambient temperature during winter [app. 14° C or 57° F]. With these percentages and temperature, if one has the ability to test pH, then this is an ideal method to determine readiness. Culture until the juice reaches pH 3.7 to pH 3.5 respectively. The cultured-vegetables should be crisp and not soft and mushy or slimy. When using between .25% to 1% salt, culture to pH 4.5 - pH 4 respectively, then the kefirkraut must be refrigerated. At this point, if you find the kefirkraut or the juice is still too sweet or fruity in flavour, ripening in cold storage for a week or two will mature the product, and flavour improves overall.
The reason kefirkraut with the addition of 1% to 2% salt may be cultured to a lower pH value of 3.5, instead of pH 4 to 4.5 [when no salt is used], is because 1% to 2% salt inhibits slime forming bacteria responsible for producing soft or slimy sauerkraut. On the other foot, either salt less kefirkraut or kraut with less than 1% salt has a greater tendency to become soft and mushy, if left to culture to pH 3.5 at ambient room temperature. This can be considered as over fermentation in this case. This is why salt less kefirkraut is cultured for only 4 to 5 days [or pH 4.5 to 4] at ambient temperature, then it is best refrigerated and left to mature for some time. Ripening under cold storage prevents the slime forming bacteria from spoiling the cultured-vegetables. As kefirkraut matures under refrigeration, acidity increases until it reaches approximately pH 3.5
Refrigerated kefirkraut with 1% to 2 % salt should keep well for at least 4 and 9 months respectively.
Adding Vegetable Juice and or Fruit Juice in Place of Water
Freshly juiced vegetable juice including some varieties of fruit juices may replace water explained in Step 6 in the directions explained above. Try cabbage, carrot, celery, ginger root, beet root, turnip, apple, quince, or dark grape juice. The juices may be used per single variety or any combination.
Yes, you may mix fruit with vegetable juices, for fermentation renders all ingredients as one--the perfect union between different vegetative-food-groups initiated by the master-of-celebrants-- the Rev. Friendly Micro-organisms.
The addition of fresh juice is best implemented if the shredded cabbage, including other ingredients, are not pounded to the point of releasing juice when squeezing an amount of bruised ingredients in the hand. The reason being, if fresh ingredients are bruised to release juice under pressure of a clenched hand, then there should be ample amount of juice to cover the ingredients when weight is placed over the compressed ingredients in the crock. BUT, if compressed ingredients with the addition of weight are not covered with a layer of liquid, then it is essential to add enough fresh juice to cover the weighted ingredients, by app. 2 cm [1 inch] layer of juice.
No Mortar & Pestle or Food Processor in the House? Then it's time for some Foot Stomping or "Pounding in the Crock"
Using a mortar and pestle to pound shredded cabbage, vegetables, or fruits is quite an efficient means of bruising the ingredients. However, a food processor can also be used to chop and bruise fresh ingredients. But if a mortar and pestle or food processor is not available [or not preferred], then pounding either shredded or whole ingredients in the brewing container itself, until the juice of the ingredients is released, is an option.
There's also the option not to bruise the vegetables at all. Instead, shredded cabbage with optional ingredients are simply compressed with the fist or wooden dowel or a wooden rolling pin, doing so in the crock itself. Continuing like so, until the vessel is filled 3/4 full with well compressed ingredients. With this method, it is essential that the weighted vegetables are covered with fresh water, or preferably with fresh vegetable juice, so that fermentation can proceed successfully. The 2 Lt [.5 gal] container in the picture is a typical glass spaghetti storing jar. The amount of one small size cabbage will fill this particular container about 2/3 full. I'm using a wooden rolling pin both for pounding and compressing the shredded cabbage.
Kefchi is a kefir-grain rendition of Kim-chi of Korea. I may prepare kefchi with Chinese [Oriental] cabbage, long white daikon radish, Jerusalem artichoke, green papaya, fresh green ginger root, young or mature lotus root, fresh chili, capsicum, garlic, fennel seed, caraway seed and juniper berries. An assortment of other fresh ingredients may be included. This wonderful delicacy can easily be prepared with little to no salt. The terra cotta crock in the picture is where the bruised ingredients are pressed and fermented. An amount of kefir grains, about 2 Tbs are placed at the bottom of the crock and another 2 Tbs placed halfway up the crock among the ingredients.
If no salt is included, fermentation takes about 3 to 4 days, because Chinese cabbage readily ferments and ferments quickly at that. If a small percentage of salt is used, fermentation may take between 5 to 10 days, depending on salt percentage and temperature.
The inner walls of the non glazed terra cotta crock, in this case, is sealed with beeswax. If you are interested in learning how to seal or line utensils intended for brewing with beeswax, please check my website.
Kefirkraut prepared with red cabbage, red fermented rice powder, oriental broccoli and slices of Japanese radish [Daikon]. This kraut has a crispy texture with a delicate flavour. The red cabbage adds a delightful colour to the finished kraut, which may be extended in creating wonderfully coloured dishes.
Making Smaller Quantities on a More Regular basis
Smaller quantities or batches of kefirkraut may be prepared by using half a cabbage or less, with the addition of your favourite veggies and using smaller containers for fermentation. This is a good option when only a few kefir grains are at hand. One tablespoon of kefir grains is sufficient to culture 1/2 to 1 litre [2 - 4 cup] size batches. Kefirkraut may be prepared at regular intervals by culturing smaller ongoing batches. The kraut may be consumed fresh, possibly rendering a more efficient probiotic source of specific lactic acid bacteria, which initiate the culture-process e.g., Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lb. plantarum.
Temperature is one of the main factors influencing the process of fermentation. Higher temperatures increases the possibility for kefirkraut to become mushy within 6-7 days, which is caused by slime forming bacteria. This is preventable by keeping a close eye on the kraut during warmer temperatures, where it may take 4 days to culture. Over fermentation is easily overlooked if temperatures reach above 28°C [82° F]. To ensure quality, I recommend culturing kefirkraut at ambient temperatures ranging between 16° to 22°C [60° to 71°F].
It's always better to under-ferment than to over-ferment kefirkraut at room temperature at higher temperature limits. This ensures that the vegetables are crisp and will retain crispiness for at least 2 months under cold storage. If the inexperienced is not sure whether the kraut is ready and believe it may need more time at room temperature, then it may be a good idea to finish the kraut in the refrigerator than to risk over fermentation. Anywhere between 4 to 6 days at room temperature during summer and winter respectively is usually enough time. Readiness of kefirkraut is mostly dependent on temperature and the amount of kefir grains added ... the warmer the temperature, the less time is needed. And to a point, the more kefir grains added, the less time it takes to brew. A good indication for readiness is by measuring pH of the liquid, doing so daily after the third day. If no salt is used, a pH of 4.5 to pH 4 indicates the kraut is ready for refrigeration. Readiness for refrigeration may also be determined by taste-testing for sourness. The juice can be sampled for a mild to moderate sour taste, with a slight amount of fizz on the tongue.
Storage Conditions and Storage Time
Kefirkraut must be stored in the refrigerator [not frozen]. It should keep for app. 3 months. After this period, it may begin to show signs of softness. Kefirkraut prepared with .5% salt, should keep well for about 4 months and 1% salt kraut for about 5 months.
Film Forming on the Surface of Kefirkraut Juice During Cold Storage
If the kraut is not consumed within 3-4 months, then one may find a thin light brown film formed on the surface of the liquid of kraut. This is more likely to occur when an excessive amount of liquid is covering the kraut. The film or mycoderma is quite likely formed by friendly yeast and bacteria propagating as colonies under low temperatures. The mycoderma may be similar to the cellulose producing Acetobactor, which forms as a cellulose film in homemade vinegar, referred to as mother of vinegar. Although any film found in kefirkraut would be unique to the mother of vinegar variant. The underside surface of all the films I've seen forming in kefirkraut, have small irregular protrusions similar in appearance to tinny light brown coloured warts [or tinny baby kefir grains] randomly scattered along the underside surface of the mycoderma [Hmm?! ... The many small wonders that lay there beneath]. The mycoderma may indicate high activity of yeasts and acetobacter due to the combined efforts of the organisms native to both kefir grains and cabbage. I would recommend discarding the kefirkraut if such a film is found. At this point, the kefirkraut will likely be mushy [no crisp texture].
.How to Get Healthy with Kefir
http://Mercola.com has several articles on kefir.
.This site, http://www.torontoadvisors.com/Kefir/kefir-list.php, lists people who can send kefir grains to people who want to start culturing their own very nutritious kefir. I told the person who's sending me Kefir grains the following. I wanted to get the kefir to make kefirkraut, a variation on saurkraut [I think at http://users.chariot.net.au/~dna/kefirkraut.html ], but I'll need to make regular kefir too, I guess, in order to keep the kefir culture alive.
.Dr. Mercola's Comment:
.Pasteurization, in which milk is heated to 145 to 150 degrees F for at least half an hour, harms fragile proteins in milk (especially casein), virtually eliminates good bacteria, destroys enzymes, vitamin A, B12, B6 and half of C, and radically reduces the nutritional content.
.Reduced-fat, low-fat and fat-free milk are virtually void of usable vitamin D and calcium.
.Xanthine oxidase acts as a free radical in the body [damaging blood vessels].
.I have seen many of my patients recover their health with raw milk.
.For those with lactose intolerance, kefir, made in cultured milk, eliminates most of the lactose and predigests casein.
Pasteurization destroys vit A, half of vit C
Yogurt increases B vitamins and minerals [& usable calcium?]
- Lactic acid as Fuel - 9/25/08
Now it is thought that ... lactic acid is absorbed [and] converted to a fuel by mitochondria in muscle cells.
- Lactate and exercise
Accumulation of lactic acid in the muscle occurs only during short bouts of exercise of relatively high intensity and it is usually related to fatigue and muscle soreness. Training and lactate supplementation may help to increase lactate clearance and subsequently improve performance.
- In making Swiss Cheese, Proprionibacterium shermanii and related organisms convert lactic acid and lactates to propionic and acetic acids and carbon dioxide.
- Lactobacilli eat lactic acid